Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Page: 6-12
Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northern Taraba Focus, Nigeria
Elkanah Sambo Obadiah, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
Elkanah Deborah Sambo, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
Madara Adamu Alhaji, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Akafyi Danlami Elisha, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Kela Santaya, Applied Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Anyanwu Greg, Applied Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Samaila Adamu, Applied Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 12, 2017;       Accepted: Sep. 30, 2017;       Published: Jan. 15, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20180301.12      View  1223      Downloads  60
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis in eleven (11) foci communities of northern Taraba state. Blood samples were collected by finger prick method to determine the presence of filarial antigen in serum using immunochromatographic card test. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to assess clinical manifestations associated with the infection. The result showed that 101/336 (30.02%) were positive for W. bancrofti circulating filarial antigen. The circulating filarial antigen prevalence among the eleven communities differ significantly (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between antigenaemia positive males (32.0%) and female (27.7%) (χ2 = 0.491df1, P> 0.05). However, the antigenaemia prevalence among the age groups differs, with ages 51-60 years having the highest prevalence among male and ages 41-50 years among female respectively (χ2=11.424, df 6, P<0.05). Chronic clinical manifestation observed include Hydrocoel (17.12%) and lymphoedema of limbs (20.08%). Female had significant proportion of those with lymphoedema (14.8%). The findings showed a high prevalence of the infection which is far above the World Health Organisation threshold level of ≥1% prevalence as well as significant prevalence of clinical manifestations. Therefore integrated intervention programme is required in the study area.
Keywords
Epidemiology, Assessment, Lymphatic Filariasis, Immunochromatographic Card, Diagnosis, Clinical Manifestations, Prevalence
To cite this article
Elkanah Sambo Obadiah, Elkanah Deborah Sambo, Madara Adamu Alhaji, Akafyi Danlami Elisha, Kela Santaya, Anyanwu Greg, Samaila Adamu, Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northern Taraba Focus, Nigeria, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 6-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20180301.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
World Health Organization. 2013. Lymphatic filariasis: a handbook of practical entomology for national lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, WHO Press, Geneva 27, Switzerland.
[2]
Hotez P. J., Asojo O. A., and Adesina AM. 2012 Nigeria: “Ground Zero” for the High Prevalence Neglected Tropical Diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: 1600:10.1371.
[3]
McCarthy JS, Lustigman S, Yang G-J, Barakat RM, García HH, Sripa B, Willingham AL, Prichard RK, Basáñez M. 2012. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis., 6: e1601.
[4]
McClay R (2006). Peters and Pasvol: Atlas of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 6th edition, Elsevier Ltd.
[5]
Addiss, D. G. and Brandy, M. A. 2007. Morbidity management in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic filariasis: A review of the scientific literature. Filarial Journal, 6:2 (doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-6-2).
[6]
World Health Organization (2017). Lymphatic filariasis: Epidemiology. Published by Division of Tropical Diseases. WHO, Geneva.
[7]
World Health Organization (2011). Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 87: 346–356.
[8]
Udoidung N I, Braide E I, Opara K O, Atting I A, Aide H A. (2008). Current status of bancroftian filariasis in rural communities of the lower Cross River basin, Nigeria: Parasitological and clinical aspects. J Pub Hlth.; 9:23–27.
[9]
Okon OE, Iboh CI, Opara K. N. 2010. Bancroftian filariasis among the Mbembe people of Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Vector Born Dis47: 91–96.
[10]
Jorge Cano, Maria P Rebollo, Nick Golding, Rachel L Pullan, Thomas Crellen, Anna Soler, Louise A Kelly- Hope, Steve W Lindsay, Simon I Hay, Moses J Bockarie and Simon J Brooker (2014). The global distribution and transmission limits of lymphatic filariasis: past and present, Parasites & Vectors 20147:466.
[11]
Nwoke, B. E. B., Dozie, I. N. S., Jiya, J., Saka, Y., Okoronkwo, C., Ogidi, J. A., Istifanus, W. A., Mafiana, C. F., Oyene, U., Amalio, O., Ogbu-Pierce, P., Audu, G., Remme, H., and Nuttal, I. (2006). The prevalence of hydrocoel in Nigeria and its implication on mapping of lymphatic filariasis. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. Vol 27: 29-35.
[12]
Terranella, A., Eigege, A., Gontor, I., Dogwa, P., Damishi, S., Miri, E., Blackburn, B., McFarland, D., Zingeser, J., Jinadu, M. Y and Richards, F. O (2006). Urban lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 100(1): 1–10.
[13]
World Health Organization (1997). Lymphatic filariasis: Reasons for hope. Published by Division of Tropical Diseases. WHO, Geneva.
[14]
World Health Organization (2016). Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report. Weekly epidemiological record 91, 441–460.
[15]
Gyapong, M., Gyapong, J., Weiss, M and Tanner, M. (2000). The burden of hydrocoel on men in Northern Ghana. ACTA Tropica. 77(3): 287-294.
[16]
Dziedzom Komi de Souza, Jewelna Osei-Poku, Julia Blum, Helena Baidoo, Charles Addoquaye Brown, Bernard Walter Lawson, Michael David Wilson, Moses John Bockarie and Daniel Adjei Boakye (2014). The epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana, explained by the possible existence of two strains of Wuchereria bancrofti. Pan Afr Med J. 17: 133. doi: 10.11604.
[17]
Nigerian National Population Census, (2006). Published by Nigeria Population Commission Abuja, Nigeria.
[18]
Edungbola, L. D., Nwoke, B. E. B., Onwuliri, C. V., Akpa, A. U. C. and Tayo-Mafe, M. (1993). Selection of Rapid Assessment methods for community diagnosis of onchocerciasis in Nigeria. A recapitulation. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 14: 3-10.
[19]
World Health Organization (1992). Lymphatic filariasis: the disease and its control. Fifth report of the WHO expert committee on filariasis. Geneva: World Health Organization Technical Report Series. No 82. WHO, Geneva. Pp 25.
[20]
Chesbrough, M (2005). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (second edition updated). Cambridge University Press New York. Pp 280- 290.
[21]
Braga, C., Dourado, M. L., Ximenes, R. A., Alves, L., Brayner, F., Rochas, A and Alexander, N (2003). Field evaluation of the whole blood immunochromatographic test for rapid bancroftian filariasis diagnosis in the North East of Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 45: 125–129.
[22]
Iqbar, J. I and Sher, A (2006). Determination of the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among migrant workers in Kuwait by detecting circulating filarial antigen. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 55:401-405.
[23]
Targema, C. N., Onwuliri, C. O. E., Mafuyai, H. B., Mwansat, G. S., Aida, A., Eigege, A., Ityonzughul, C., Kal, A., Orkurga, B and Junaidu, M. Y (2008). Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Benue state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 29(1): 55–61.
[24]
Eigege A, Richards F O, Blaney D D, Miri E S, Gontor I, Ogah G, Umaru J, Janadu M Y, Matthias W, Amadiegwu S, Hopkins D R. 2003. Rapid assessment for lymphatic Filariasis in central Nigeria: a Comparison of the Immunochromatographic card test and hydrocoele rates in an area of high endemicity. Am J Trop Med Hyg.; 68(6):643–646.
[25]
Omudu, E. A and Okafor, F. C (2007). Rapid epidemiological and social-cultural appraisal of lymphatic filariasis amongst the Igede ethnic group in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 28(2):118–124.
[26]
Anosike, J. C., Onwuliri, C. O. E., Nwoke, B. E. B., Ajayi, E. G., Oku, E. E., Asor, J. E (2005). Lymphatic Filariasis among the Ezza people of Ebonyi State, Eastern Nigeria Annals of Agriculture and Environmental Medicine. 12: 181-186.
[27]
Elkanah, S. O., Onyeka, J. O. A., Anyanwu, G. I., Madara, A. A and Debby-Sambo, D. E (2011). The prevalence of Bancroftian filariasis in Five Communities of Lau L. G. A Taraba Stat The Nigeria Journal of Parasitology 23 (2); 157-164.
[28]
Lammie, J. P., Addis, D. G., Leonard, G., Hightower. A. W and Eber hard, M. L (1993). Heterogeneity in filarial-specific Immune responsiveness among patients with lymphatic obstruction. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 167: 1178-1183.
[29]
Kar, S. K., Maria, J and Kar, P. K (1993). Humeral Immune response during filarial fever in bancroftian filariasis. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 87: 230–237.
[30]
Badaki, J. A. and Akogun, O. B. (2001): Severe morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis in Taraba State, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 21: 105-112.
Browse journals by subject